- The tissue destroying enzymes (matrix metalloproteinases) collagenase, elastase and gelatinase are inhibited in vitro. Release of these enzymes from inflammatory cells is also inhibited by Pycnogenol® and its metabolites.
- Pycnogenol® slows down the aging related process of decline in the activities of immune- and blood cells generating systems and restores their functions to normal.
- Pycnogenol® shows beneficial effects in case of lupus erythematosus
- Pycnogenol® selectively kills cancerous ovarian germ cells.
- Pycnogenol® selectively kills cancerous human mammary cells (MCF-7), without affecting the normal mammary cells (MCF-10).
- Pycnogenol® scavenges superoxide radicals in vitro and inhibits oedema in vivo. The anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging activities are closely correlated.
- Pycnogenol® protects intestinal mucosa against radiotherapy induced damage: histo-morphological evidence in rats.
- Pycnogenol® produces an anti-oedema effect in two different models. Topical application of Pycnogenol® gel protects the skin against UV radiation.
- Pycnogenol® inhibits UV-induced erythema in humans. This effect was concentration dependent indicating the beneficial effects of Pycnogenol® in skin disorders induced by UV radiation.
- Pycnogenol® inhibits the most important pro-inflammatory enzymes, signalizing Pycnogenol's bioavailability.
- Pycnogenol® inhibits key triggers of inflammation.
- Pycnogenol® increases TNF-? secretion in the macrophage system in a concentration and time dependent manner indicating that it acts as modulator of the immune response in macrophages.
- Pycnogenol® enhances the activity of the immune system in mice infected with a leukemia-causing retrovirus. Pycnogenol® increases the natural killer cell cytotoxicity.
- Pycnogenol® applied topically after sunburn inhibits photocarcinogenesis.
- Pycnogenol® applied after sunburn inhibits UV-induced suppression of immune system.
- Pycnogenol® activates in vitro macrophages to kill more effectively invading bacteria.
- Pycnogenol's® beneficial effects in a series of painful conditions as stiff shoulder, endometriosis, herniated disc.
- Oral administration of Pycnogenol® is able to delay and to reduce skin cancer following UV radiation.
- Applied topically, Pycnogenol® significantly reduces UVB radiation induced-erythema, the procyanidins are the protecting factors.